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Introduction This study aims to investigate the changes and developments in mathematics curricula, which approved by the Ministry of Education for teaching mathematics during the period (1964-1999). It also aims at highlighting the feature of every period of development and to review the reasons that lead to such development. The study has the aim to answer the following questions: 1.What are the developments that the learning objectives of mathematics curricula in Jordan have witnessed during the period (1964-1999) ? 2.What are the developments that the mathematical content of mathematics curricula in Jordan have witnessed during the period (1964-1999) ? 3.What are the developments that the instruction methods of mathematics curricula in Jordan have witnessed during the period (1964-1999)? 4.What are the developments that the evaluation methods of mathematics curricula in Jordan have witnessed during the period (1964 –1999)? The first chapter of the study describes some facts about Jordan, the educational system, and instructional plans for teaching mathematics, which was approved by MOE during the period (1964-1999), the need for developing mathematics curricula, and statement and significance of the study with the questions mentioned above, and includes the limitation of the study. The second Chapter includes on a review of literature through display the international development of mathematics curriculum and relative studies, the development of mathematics education in Germany, and the development of mathematics curriculum and relative studies in the Arab World, especially in Jordan. Chapter three describes the methodology and procedures which are used: the analysis method, (analysis procedures of content mathematics curricula, analysis tool), and the interview: (sample, interview procedures, tool, and procedures of interview analysis). Chapter four: contains the findings of the study represented with the analysis results of mathematics curriculum according to the study questions, the results of content analysis of Mathematics curricula according to the “Principles and Standards for School Mathematics” which issued by NCTM, the response and opinion of interview sample to the items of a study tool (questionnaire). Chapter five: Include discussion of the findings and the results of the study according to the study question, and investigate the characteristics and the reasons behind the development witnessed by the curricula of mathematics in Jordan during the period (1964-1999). The main analysis results of mathematics curriculum which approved by MOE in Jordan, and the opinions of the interview sample are concentrated on discussion and investigation the development characteristics of learning objectives of teaching mathematics, mathematical content, instructional and evaluation methods of teaching mathematics, according to the “Principles and Standards for School Mathematics”, and through division the whole period into three sub-periods. The curriculum documents (in English translation), the NCTM standards, and other data with additional information – among other things the results of the interviews – are arranged as appendix 1 to appendix 10. This study is significant as being one of the rare attempts in Jordan to explore the development of mathematics curricula. The study is also unique in the length of the period it has chosen, 1964-1999. As such, it can be referred to as a historical source for the evolution of mathematics curricula in Jordan, so that scholars benefit from its analysis and historical documentation of the period of the development of these curricula. It is also beneficial to the writers of school textbooks since it provides a list of universal standards used to analyze the mathematical content of curricula. These are attached in a short section as “recommendations”.

ix Introduction The study has the purpose (1) to describe and explore the Mathematics student teachers’ performance inside the classroom during the training course “teaching practice” at the University of Jordan/ Amman, and (2) to include the main factors which influence the development of the professional teaching competence in their mode of action. This study has particularly the aim to investigate the difficulties which face the student teachers’ performance, and the facilities which help them in their performance and decrease the obstacles of the development of student teachers’ performance. The study has the aim to answer the following questions: 1. How does the performance of student teachers develop with respect to time of the training course? 2. What difficulties do the student teachers face during the training course? 3. What are the facilities that help in developing student teachers’ performance during the training course? 4. What are the factors related to performance? Are they personal, social, methodological, or related to mastering the curriculum? 5. What is the relation between student teachers’ performance and supervision? The 1st opening chapter of the study describes some facts about Jordan, the school system there, the system of pre-service teacher education, the background of the study, and the purpose of the study with the questions mentioned above. In the 2nd chapter a review of the existing literature follows with the theoretical concepts which are connected with the questions. Main concepts are: development of teachers’ performance, factors affecting the trainees’ performance, supervision and teacher development, problems of beginning teachers, models in teacher development, facilities that help trainees, standards of teaching competences, methodological basis of teaching Mathema tics. Chapter 3 describes the plan of the empirical research and the four methodological tools which are used: video tapes, interviews, questionnaires, and self reports. It is a case study with the seven Mathematics student teachers of the academic year 1999/2000 at the university of Jordan/Amman. Chapter 4 contains the data collection from the four resources in English. The data material was collected in Arabic and then translated into English by the author. Chapter 5 starts with the data analysis and description of the 7 cases. Chapter 6 continues the data analysis, presents the results, discusses these in an overview. This leads in chapter 7 to a combination of the results which come from the analysis of chapters 5 and 6, and to the answers to the que stions 1—5. The main results are concentrated around the main features of performance, which are in the teacher education plan of Amman five areas: lesson plan, mastering content knowledge, methods of teaching, assessment of teaching, and classroom management. This study is the first one which describes and analyses scientifically the phase of practice teaching at Jordanian universities. It is done exemplary at the University of Jordan/Amman with all Mathematics student teachers of one academic year. It for the first time is possible to win insight in the individual professional development of single student teachers in Jordan, and insight in the influence of specific relating factors. This study has a valuable starting point, looks to be won for a further development of the teacher-training in Jordan. These are attached in a short section as "recommendations".

Mittels einer zweijährigen Längsschnittstudie wurde ein mathematisches Förderprogramm für den Elementarbereich evaluiert. Die Ergebnisse der Studie zeigen, dass die geförderten Kinder im Nachtest signifikant bessere Leistungen als die nichtgeförderten Kinder mit gleicher Ausgangslage erzielten. Es wird außerdem deutlich, dass sowohl leistungsstärkere als auch leistungsschwächere Kinder von der Fördermaßnahme profitieren. Die langfristige Wirksamkeit wurde mit einem Test ein Jahr nach Beendigung der Fördermaßnahme nachgewiesen.